Biology 42

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Topic (42) Analyze evidence about embryonic development as related to biological diversity. (HS-LS4-1)

Physiology is a sub-discipline with the life sciences. It is the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms. Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system. As a sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.


Day 1 – Introduction
Day 2 – Virtual Textbook

7:58 The Skeletal System

7:31 Integumentary System

5:15 The Neuron


Compare Contrast and Debate

This is a summary of lengthy article from Journal of Medical Ethics (see full article).

Definition: A cadaver is a dead human body that is used by medical students, physicians and other scientists to study anatomy.


Dissection is being jeopardized in the modern medical education. It has unrelentingly faced the lashes of time and has been the scapegoat for numerous convenient curricula reforms and subjective biases. … This article shows the medical and ethical validity of continuing human body dissection in medicine. The positives in continuing this type of research outweighs all the prejudices associated with it.

But … Over the centuries, many people have had moral objections related to human dissection has – especially among many religious people. There are many who consider dissection to be the ultimate insult to the dead and the most extreme breech of privacy of a person.

Still, cadaver dissection has continued in the medical curriculum because of significant benefits of delivering first hand information of the human body .For now, diverging schools of thought have not stopped the practical and clinically oriented medical / surgical institutions in continuing their cadaver oriented studies.

  • Position A. Even with the possible moral issues associated with this type of research, the benefits outweigh any negatives.
  • Position B. Modern-day technology provides a sufficient level of similar training that actual cadavers are no longer needed for research.

Instructor Resources

Standard Daily Material
  • Day 1 – Standard material – introduction day
  • Day 2 – Standard material – reading day
  • Day 3 – Standard material – make a presentation
  • Day 4 – Standard material – give a presentation
  • Extra! – Enrichment and remediation options
Other Topic Specific Resources
  • cK-12 Organization of the human body
  • Britannica Human Skeletal System
  • Biology 42 Venn Diagram activity
  • LS42 Team effort (tns)
  • LS42 Exploring diffusion (tns)
  • LS42 Make sense of this (tns)
  • LS42 Temperature regulation (tnsp)
  • LS42 Blood pressure biology (tns)
  • LS42 The nervous system (tnsp)

Special Notes and Notices

Instructor Emphasis:

  • Science & Engineering Practice: Develop and use models.
  • Cross-Cutting Concept: Structure and Function.

Emphasize HS-LS4-1  Analyze and evaluate how evidence such as similarities in DNA sequences, anatomical structures, and order of appearance of structures during embryological development contribute to the scientific explanation of biological diversity.

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